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Reading: Social science — How-to Part 1

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여기 지문이 있습니다 이 지문은 Richard Florida의 The Great Reset에서 인용한 것입니다 이 지문은 Richard Florida의 The Great Reset에서 인용한 것입니다 저는 이 지문이 흥미롭다고 생각합니다 신나네요 In today's idea-driven economy the cost of time is what really matters With the constant pressure to innovate it makes little sense to waste countless collective hours commuting So, the most efficient and productive regions are those in which people are thinking and working not sitting in traffic The auto-dependent transportation system has reached its limit in most major cities and megaregions Commuting by car is among the least efficient of all our activities not to mention among the least enjoyable according to detailed research by the Nobel Prize-winning economist Daniel Kahneman and his colleagues Though one might think that the economic crisis beginning in 2007 would have reduced traffic high unemployment means fewer workers travelling to and from work the opposite has been true Average commutes have lengthened and congestion has gotten worse, if anything The average commute rose in 2008 to 25.5 minutes The average commute rose in 2008 to 25.5 minutes erasing years of decreases to stand at the level of 2000 as people had to leave their homes earlier in the morning to pick up friends for their ride to work or to catch a bus or subway train according to the US Census Bureau which collects figures 여기 이것은 US Census Bureau에서 직접 인용한 구문입니다 여기 이것은 US Census Bureau에서 직접 인용한 구문입니다 And those are average figures Commutes are far longer in the big West Coast cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco and the East Coast cities of New York Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, DC In many of these cities gridlock has become the norm not just at rush hour but all day, everyday The costs are astounding In Los Angeles, congestion eats up more than 485 million working hours a year that's 70 hours or nearly two weeks of full-time work per commuter In DC, the time cost of congestion is 62 hours per worker per year In New York it is 44 hours Average it out and the time cost across America's 13 biggest city-regions is 51 hours per worker per year Across the country commuting wastes 4.2 billion hours of work time annually nearly a full workweek for every commuter The overall cost to the US economy is nearly $90 billion when lost productivity and wasted fuel are taken into account At the Martin Prosperity Institute we calculate 저자가 여기서 일하나 보네요 we calculate that every minute shaved off America's commuting time is worth $19.5 billion in value added to the economy The numbers add up fast five minutes is worth $97.7 billion 10 minutes, $195 billion 15 minutes, $292 billion It's ironic that so many people still believe the main remedy for traffic congestion is to build more roads and highways which of course only makes the problem worse New roads generate higher levels of induced traffic that is, new roads just invite drivers to drive more and lure people who take mass transit back to their cars Eventually, we end up with more clogged roads rather than a long-term improvement in traffic flow The coming decades will likely see more intense clustering of jobs innovation, and productivity in a smaller number of bigger cities and city-regions Some regions could end up bloated beyond the capacity of their infrastructure while others struggle their promise stymied by inadequate human or other resources 좋습니다 이 저자는 아주 반 교통체증 반 긴 통근시간이고 도로를 더 만드는 것이 해답이라 생각하지 않는데 도로를 더 만드는 것이 해답이라 생각하지 않는데 그러면 단지 사람들이 운전을 더 할 뿐이라고 생각하기 때문입니다 여기 차트기 있습니다 The Most Congested Cities in 2011 Yearly Hours of Delay per Automobile Commuter Yearly Hours of Delay per Automobile Commuter Yearly Hours of Delay per Automobile Commuter 여기 DC가 가장 높고 Phoenix가 가장 아래에 있습니다 다른 도시도 많이 있겠지만 계속 나열한다면 이것들이 가장 큰 도시들입니다 2011년 교통체증이 가장 심한 도시이죠 이 큰 도시들의 평균은 여기를 보면 50시간입니다 여기서 그렇게 말하죠 평균 일주일 근로시간은 40시간입니다 그러니까 이것은 평균 통근에 한 사람은 일주일만큼 일하는 시간을 차에 앉아서 막히는 길 위에서 스트레스를 받고 불만을 가지며 보낸다는 것입니다 이것이 이 지문의 주장입니다 문제를 풀어보도록 하죠